Boron is useful for the treatment of amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, epilepsy and elevated uric acid. Recent research suggests it may also assist bone and joint health. It may also participate in regulating the respiratory burst of neutrophils.
Copper is an essential trace mineral in animal and human nutrition. In addition to possible anaemia, neutropenia and osteoporosis, manifestations of mild copper deficiency may include abnormal glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolemia, arthritis, myocardial disease, arterial disease, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of pigmentation and neurological problems.
Manganese is an essential trace mineral in animal and human nutrition. Manganese is central to mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, cAMP and the modification of intracellular calcium level. Deficiency results in abnormal arginase activity and the Krebs cycle conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate. Manganese is crucial for bone and connective tissue synthesis.
Molybdenum is an essential trace mineral in plant, animal and human nutrition. It is found in several tissues of the human body and is required for the activity of three important enzyme systems, xanthine oxidase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and sulfite oxidase—and so has a vital role in uric acid formation, iron utilization and the catabolism of purines and the sulfur amino acids.
Selenium has antioxidant activity. Selenium may also have immunomodulatory, anticarcinogenic and anti-atherogenic activities. It may have activity in detoxification of some metals and other xenobiotics and activity in fertility enhancement in males.
Vanadium salts have insulin-mimetic activity, and so may be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of Type II diabetes, hyperglycaemia, heart disease, bodybuilding, and possible thyroid benefits. Vanadium potentiates creatine and may potential the facilitation of glucose and amino acids into cells for greater strength and results.
Iron (Fe) is an essential trace mineral in humans. It is involved in the entire process of breathing, including oxygen transport and electron transport. Iron-deficiency, which can lead to anemia, is the most common nutritional disorder in the world.
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